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1 Corinthians 9:11
"If we sowed spiritual things in you, is it
too much if we should reap material things from you?"
To Effective Ministry
Section 10, Chapter 2
The Book of Genesis
The Creation of Man
Moses wrote in the book of Genesis 2:7 how God created man:
man of dust
from the ground,
into his nostrils
and man became a living
soul." (Genesis 2:7)
When God created man, He created man with three kinds of
"Then Yehovah Elohim formed man of dust from the ground"
breathed into his-nostrils the spirit of lives"
"and man became a living soul."
Manís spirit is the means by which he has God
consciousness and relationship with God. Manís soul is the means by
which he has self-consciousness and relationship with self. Manís body
is the means by which man has world consciousness and is able to carry out his
soul desires in the physical world. Section 1, Chapter 6 goes into greater depth
concerning the creation, constitution and Fall of man. What we want to focus on
in this Chapter is the miracle of the human body that God created.
*Nucleic Acids: DNA
The blue print and bases upon which God created physical life
and for the maintaining of that physical life is DNA a Nucleic Acid.
Nucleic Acids are substances which store information that determines the
structure and function of a living organism and its components. There are two
types of Nucleic Acid in the living cell: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and
RNA (ribonucleic acid). The six foot long strand of DNA in the human cell
is broken down into 46 strands called Chromosomes. These Chromosomes
contain the programming needed for all the different types of protein needed by
an organism. The instruction for each type of protein needed are the hereditary
components of DNA called genes (Illustration).
RNA carries out this programming instruction known as protein synthesis.
The DNA in all the chromosomes in the fertilized egg of a human contain all
needed instruction to create and maintain a fully formed human being.
Computer programs are blue prints of information from which
when the computer reads it, it produces a planned intended out come. The
alphabet of the computer program is zero and one. Depending on how
these zeros and ones are combined ("00110101101") determines how the
computer will translate that information on your screen for viewing and in print
on your printer. DNA is also a program, a blue print for all life, full of
information for the building and maintaining of that life. DNA also has an
alphabet of four letters called bases. These four bases are Adenine
(A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C);
and a fifth called Uracil (U) used in place of thymine for RNA (Illustration).
Depending on how these bases are combined in a given gene of DNA (AATCGTTTGCGT)
determines how the cell will translate this information for an intelligent
determined outcome. Both DNA and RNA are made up of atoms of carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus arranged by design into molecular subunits
called nucleotides (Illustration).
The writing pad of DNA is a strand made of phosphoric acid. The letters
of the DNA alphabet are attached to this phosphoric acid strand, not randomly,
but intelligently, through a five-carbon sugar bridge called deoxyribose
in DNA and ribose in RNA. (Illustration)
Protein is the primary outcome of the instruction of these
gene bases within the DNA. Forces within the cell go to the DNA double Helix (Illustration),
unravel that part of the DNA code instruction needed for a specific purpose and
creates a RNA strand which carries out this specific instruction within the
cell. These separate instructions produce protein for hair, eyes, skin, muscle,
enzymes, and thousands of other functions needed to be carried out within the
cell to produce a fully functioning human being. Enzymes have many functions.
Many are used as catalysts within the cell to bring about the needed reactions
the RNA instruction needs to carry out its intelligent intended purpose within
the cell. Every cell type has characteristic proteins like actin and myosin for
muscle tissue which makes it appear as it does.
Proteins are made up of Amino Acids, twenty of them (Illustration).
This is a letter alphabet of protein structure. Depending on how these Amino
Acids are added in a chain and arranged, called polypeptides, will determine
what kind of protein is produced. So critical is this order that if just one
Amino Acid is out of place, out of hundreds and thousands of ordered Amino
Acids, the intended needed formation of the protein will be destroyed, and in
many cases will lead to the weakened condition of the life form and to early
premature death. Just how critical this is is talked about in Chapter 4 titled Mutations
Confirm the Book of Genesis. Amino Acids in Protein are composed of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and most of the time sulfur.
The polypedtides formed from the amino acids combine
together to form chains which then fold into specific coiled or pleated
structures which then arrange into fibers, crystals or specific layers to
produce the final intended product like muscle, skin or hair. A small protein
can consist of up to 600 amino acids. For example: Hemoglobin consists of 574
amino acids arranged in four polypeptide chains. Its chemical formula is C3032H4816O872N780S8Fe4.
The protein hemoglobin carries the oxygen in red blood cells.
As has already been discussed, DNA contains three different
families of chemicals: phosphate, sugar, and bases. A phosphate
consists of a phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms and is necessary
for living things. Bones contain phosphate. Sugars are a subgroup of a
biochemical family called carbohydrates. They consist of carbon, water,
hydrogen and oxygen. The "D" in DNA stands for the sugar deoxyribose.
The bases are the most significant part of the DNA
molecule. They are a part of two families called purine and pyrimidine.
These four bases and the families they go in are listed in this illustration.
DNA exists in the form of two strands attached to each other
by means of their bases. Purine bases link up to pyrimidine bases
in DNA to form what is known as the Double-Helix. By knowing the bases of
one strand, you automatically know the base line up of the other strand. This is
because Cytosine will only pair with Guanine and Adenine will only pair with
Through the research of Phoebus Levene, it was discovered
that the three components of phospate, sugar and a base were linked together by
chemical bonds in the order of phosphate-sugar-base.330/10 The sugar
forms the bridge between the phosphate and the base. This is what is known as a nucleotide.
The DNA molecule is therefore a six-foot long strand of phospate and billions of
bases connected to the strand of phosphate through individual sugar bridges one
after the other. The DNA is then coiled into units we call chromosomes in
the nucleus of a cell that is smaller than the period at the end of this
sentence. RNA is similar in its make up to DNA except that the base uracil
(U) is found in place of Thymine (T), and the sugar deoxyribose is
replaced with the sugar ribose.
The genetically active strand of DNA is called the plus strand. The
plus-strand sequence of AATCGTTTGCGT would be reflected in its mate, the minus
strand, by the sequence TTAGCAAACGCA. By knowing the base sequence of one
strand you can accurately predict the base sequence of the the other strand. The
reason why the minus-strand exists has to do with cell division. It is
like the negative of a photograph. When the cell gets ready to divide, the
plus-strand separates from the minus-strand, and from nucleotide combinations
floating within the cell a new plus-strand is formed to the minus-strand which
then becomes the DNA of the new cell. Of course a new minus-strand also forms to
the original plus-strand.
*How Genes Make Proteins
Within the DNA strand, bases are paired together in triplet combinations
called condons. This is also true concerning the RNA. Sixty-four
different kind of condon combinations are possible: AGC, GCA, TGG, etcetera.
This is similar to binary coding of a computer. Instead of 0, 1 combinations,
DNA have four to work with: A, G, C, T. Several of these condons in combination
form a program for creating a specific amino acid. Most proteins consist of
around 100 amino acids. Some consist of 1,000.
When the stretch of DNA condons for a specific protein are met, the last
condon is a stop condon. They call this stretch of condons an open
reading frame (ORF). Though DNA primarily produces specific proteins, it has
many other functions as well.
The ORF is the gene for a specific protein. When a
specific protein is needed, the DNA in the needed portion of the chromosome will
uncoil. Next the two strands of DNA will separate at the strand of ORF needed.
Next a compliment from nucleotides from RNA components within the cell combine
with the ORF strand. This is known as transcription. RNA is similar to
DNA in many ways, but it is always a much smaller molecule, and it contains only
one strand. The strand of RNA formed is called messenger RNA or mRNA.
The mRNA separates from the DNA and passes into the cytoplasm through the pores
in the nuclear membrane.
Once out, the mRNA strand encounters ribosomes. Ribosomes are composed
of protein and RNA. In some fashion the mRNA is handled by the ribosomes. At the
same time, particles of yet another kind of RNA are attracted called transfer
RNA or tRNA. As they associate with each other they transfer a
particular kind of amino acid, and become attracted to the ribosome in
accordance with the base sequence of the mRNA strand.
tRNA is intricately coiled and in some places double-stranded, with a group
of three free and reactive bases on one end which comprise a triplet
known as an anticodon. These three bases provide a means of connecting
with a complementary triplet of bases of a strand of mRNA called a condon.
A triplet sequence is associated with a specific amino acid. The strand of tRNA
provides the scaffolding for the arrangement of amino acids into proteins. The
final step in which protein is formed is called translation. Once the
protein is complete, mRNA is released and can be reused to form fresh mRNA with
a different information content, or to produce another strand of tRNA of the
There are also specific enzymes in the cell whose job are to destroy outdated
and inappropriate mRNA so that they do not interfere with the present needs of
the cell. The life of mRNA in a cell is in minutes or hours.
When this process takes place it is what is known as gene expression.
What does this mean? It means that when God created Adam and Eve, their DNA,
which is passed on to every human, contains all the genetic information that is
expressed in all races of humans. This complete genetic information is in every
cell of every kind of tissue you have in your body from bone cells to brain
cells to skin cells to stomach cells. The reason why some humans express
different genetic traits then others is because only certain genes in each human
are expressed, accessed, while the others remain in the DNA molecule suppressed.
Continued on Pages 2,
Bibliography & Notes
Section 10 Chapters