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Relationship With Jesus
The Key To Effective Ministry

Section 3, Chapter 3

Jesus Is Fully God & Fully Man

Chapter Illustration

Page 3 of Pages 1, 2
Study Questions

Orthodox Response:

COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON 451:
CHALCEDONIAN CREED

When the emperor died after falling off a horse, the new emperor, Marcian, sympathetic to the two nature doctrine, responded to calls for a general council. This Council took 3 steps of action: it reaffirmed the Nicene Creed; it rejected both Nestorianism and Eutychianism; finally, it adopted a statement of its own which has been the standard of orthodoxy to the present day called The Chalcedonian Creed. It states the following:

*As translated in Philip Schaff’s book, The Creeds of Christendom:

We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhood and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable [rational] soul and body; consubstantial89 [coessential89] with the Father according to the Godhood, and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhood, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person (provswpon, prosopon)88 and one Subsistence (uJpostasi", hypostasis)81, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son and only begotten, God the Word (lovgo", Logos)82, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the prophets from the beginning [have declared] concerning him, and the Lord Jesus Christ himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.54/62-63

*As translated in Dale Moody’s book, The Word of Truth:

Therefore, following the Holy Fathers, we all with one accord teach men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once complete in Godhead and complete in Manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time of one substance with us as regards his Manhood; like us in all respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Father before the ages, but yet as regards his Manhood begotten, for us men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the God-bearer; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only begotten, recognized IN TWO NATURES, WITHOUT CONFUSION, WITHOUT CHANGE, WITHOUT DIVISION, WITHOUT SEPARATION; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence91, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke of him, and our Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and the creed of the Fathers has handed down to us.66

The Chalcedonian Creed taught the following about Jesus:

  1. Jesus is the Only Son of God.

  2. Jesus is our Lord.

  3. Jesus is perfect in Godhood.

  4. Jesus is perfect in Manhood.

  5. Jesus humanity consists of rational soul and body.

  6. Jesus is one in essence with the Father in divinity--truly God.

  7. Jesus is one in essence with man in His humanity-truly Man.

  8. Jesus is like us in all respects, except without sin.

  9. Jesus was begotten of the Father before all ages as to His Godhood.

  10. Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, thus making Mary the mother of God.

  11. Jesus has two separate natures that are without confusion, without change, without division, without separation.

  12. The distinction of Jesus’ two natures are in no way taken away by the union of the two, but rather the properties of both natures are preserved.

  13. That Jesus is one individual person with two distinct individual natures: a Divine nature and a Human nature.

What is the importance of understanding who Jesus is? A Christian cult is that which deviates from this Christological definition of Christ one way or another. For example: Jehovah witnesses believe that Jesus was only an angel. Mormon's believe Jesus started out as a man who in time became God. Unitarians believe that Jesus was only a man, no divine nature. By clearly understanding who Jesus is: fully God and fully man in one person, you will automatically be able to discern error when a Christian cult starts talking about who Jesus is which is really another Jesus (2 Cor 11:4), not the Jesus talked about in the New Testament.

Secondly, understanding who Jesus is, is all wrapped up in our salvation. If God the Son did not come down out of heaven and become fully man with all of man's limitations as a man in spirit, soul and body, how could He have been truly tempted by sin as a man, truly resist that sin with the limitations of a man and be able to attain our salvation for us by truly suffering on the cross as a man? It is through our receiving the God-Man, Jesus Christ, that we receive His eternally living divine nature which is what gives us eternal life: the very divine life of Jesus Himself.

Christological Terms & Meaning
(English & Greek)

ENGLISH:

  1. Adoptionism: The Word, Logos, united with a preexisting individual human being. As a result God adopted this preexisting man as his son, but this did not make the man divine.

  2. Anthropotokos: human bearing.

  3. *pollinarianism: no human spirit, filled by logos. A denial of the full humanity of Jesus.

  4. Arianism: Denial of the full divinity of Jesus.

  5. Coessential: United in essence; having the same essence and nature.65/260

  6. Communicatio Idomatum: the flesh shares the names and the properties of the Word, and vica versa.

  7. Consubstantial: Of one and the same substance, essence and nature.65/289

  8. Docetism: Jesus was not human but only seemed human. The word Docetism comes from the greek verb dokei'n meaning: "to seem". John the Apostle corrected this in 1 John.

  9. Dyothelitism: Jesus has two wills.

  10. Dyophysitism: Jesus has a human soul and a divine soul.

  11. Ebionism: Denies Jesus' Divinity. Teaches he was only a man.

  12. Ecthesis: written by Patriarch Sergius of Constantinople, promulgated by the emperor Heraclius in 638, and endorsed by Pope Honorius I. Dealing with Jesus’ qhlemato"-wills human & divine; it outlawed both and said what was important was that Jesus Christ had done the action. But the very statement supported Monothelitism.

  13. Eutychian: Taught that Jesus had only one nature.

  14. Henoticon: issued by emperor Zeno in 482. It declared that the Son of God, while coessential (of the same substance) in His deity with the Father and with us in His humanity, is not two but one, and that the miracles and sufferings are to be predicated of the same subject.

  15. Hypostasis: individual single person. a. One of the three real and distinct subsistences in the one substance of God. c. The one personality of Christ uniting the human and the divine.65/654

  16. Incarnate, derived from two latin words meaning "in-flesh".

  17. Kenetic Christology: Taken from the Greek word ejkevnwsen (kenow, kenov", 2/228) meaning to empty or divest one’s self of one’s prerogatives, abase one’s self (Phil 2:7), 2/124, 128. It means that though Jesus was God, while a man on earth, He did not draw upon His divinity but only his humanity and the help of His Father when provided. Evidences of this are Matt 24:36, Mark 9:21, Luke 2:52.

  18. Lateran Council of 649 and Pope Martin 1 taught that there really and truly were two natures in Christ, and that this required two wills. To deny the two wills, in their judgment, was to deny the reality of the incarnation. The emperor exiled Pope Martin I.

  19. Monergistic: Christ’s actions were divine-human meaning one combined willed effort, not two separate wills.

  20. Monophysite: Denial of two natures in Jesus, only one nature.

  21. Monothelitism: the teaching Jesus had only one will, not a separate divine and a separate human will.

  22. Nestorianism: Taught that Jesus was two persons: The Logos and the Man himself.

  23. Patripassianism: The Father suffered in Christ.

  24. Sabellianism: The teaching that God is one person, not three, who manifests himself as the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.

  25. Sixth Ecumenical Council 680-681 ruled in favor of the Dyothelite position: two-wills.

  26. Subsistence: An independent existence, entity (see hypostasis).65/1310 In Christology referring to Jesus’ individual personhood within the one Triune God consisting of three persons.

  27. Word-Flesh Athanasius insisted that in the incarnation Christ did not merely enter into a man, but actually became a man.75/3.26

  28. Word-Man The Antiochene Christology, "Word-Man", said the word only took on a man, but did not become man. This openned the door for "Adoptionism," according to which the Word united with a preexisting individual human being.

GREEK

  1. anqrwpotokos, human bearing.71

  2. ajpauvgasma a reflected brightness, thus, radiance. n. nt. (ajpov from, away from; hence, it variously signifies departure; distance of time or place. prep. & aujgavzw, aujghv to shine, give light. intrans. 2/40, 59). Heb 1:3. 2/36, 4/68.

  3. dokei'n to seem, appear; to think, imagine, suppose, presume; Christological term. pres. infin. Lk 19:11. dokevw. 2/104.

  4. ejkevnwsen to empty, evacuate; to divest one’s self of one’s prerogatives, abase one’s self. 3 pers. sing. aor. 1, ind. act. Phil 2:7. kenovw, kenov". 2/124, 228.

  5. qeotokos, God bearing.70

  6. lovgo" Logos, Word. John 1:1. 2/253, 248.

  7. oJmoiusion similar substance. Christological Term. o{moio" like, similar, resembling. adj. Matt 11:16. 2/288, 4/608.

  8. oJmoousion, same substance66

  9. oJmoiwvmati likeness, resemblance, similitude; that which is conformed or assimilated; form, shape, figure. dat. sing. Phil 2:7. oJmoivwma, o{moio" like, similar, resembling. 2/288.

  10. provswpon person, presence; front, face, appearance. Christological Term. n. nt. (prov" genitive: from; metaph.: for the benefit of; dat.: near, by, at, by the side of, in the vicinity of. prep. & w[y. 2/346, ). Gal 2:6. 2/353, 4/761.

  11. schvmati appearance, guise; form; fashion, external show. dat. sing. Phil 2:8. sch'ma. 2/394.

  12. uJpostavsew" essence, subsistence. gen. sing. Heb 1:3. uJpovstasi". 2/419.

  13. uJpostasi" individual single person. A Christological term. uJpostavsew" essence, subsistence. gen. sing. Heb 1:3. uJpovstasi". 2/419. a. One of the three real and distinct subsistences in the one substance of God. c. The one personality of Christ uniting the human and the divine.65/654.

  14. carakth;r exact-image, an impress. n. masc. Heb 1:3. cavragma an imprinted mark, ingraver from caravssw to notch, engrave. 2/433-434, 4/913.

  15. cristotovkos, "Christ-bearing," or "Mother of Christ." First used by Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople 428 A.D.71

Study Questions
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