1 Corinthians 9:11
At one time gene information was thought to be protein until DNA was clearly discovered. A scientific "Fact" is a tenuous piece of information. To a scientist, a "fact" is simply an attempt to state our best current understanding of a specific phenomenon and is only valid until it is revised or replaced by a better understanding.43/10 As one scientist put it, in the scientific world Fact "is not a citadel of certainty to be defended against error; it is a shady spot where one eats lunch before tramping on."401/3
The Scientific method involves:
Neither the theory of evolution or the story of Creation are observable phenomena today because creation is a historical event that took place before man was created. While neither can be observed, we can draw reasonable conclusions based on the data drawn using the scientific method. what do the measurable, tangible, observable facts of science show us? They show us that evolution is a scientific impossibility. Read on\
Dr. Robert Gang, with the Smarnof research facility in Princeton, N.J., has taken the literature from microbiology laboratories and has found that evolution is absolutely impossible. Why? Inside all material is information. For example, even within the Hydrogen Atom is information exchange between the electron and proton. Dr Gang has taken all the possible non-living information in all of the material of the world and has found it to come to 160 Exponential Bits of information.329/162-164 How large is an Exponential Bit? 270 Exponential Bits of information comes to 1080. The entire Solar System including the earth comes to 170 Exponential Bits of information. The entire Universe comes to 235 Exponential Bits of Information.
What about living material? Living material is extremely complicated. First, it is three dimensional. Every single component is interdependent and co-dependent on every other component. The smallest unit of living matter that we know anything about is a Protein Molecule. How complicated is one protein molecule? One protein molecule contains 1,500 Exponential Bits of Information.
An example of a simple cell bacteria is the E. Coll Bacterium which is in the intestinal tract of all human beings. It contains 7 million Exponential Bits of Information. A Human Cell contains 20 Billion Exponential Bits of Information. Given an eternity of time, it is impossible for the universe, with its 235 Exponential Bits of information to produce the simplest protein let alone the simplest bacteria let alone a human cell.
In 1981 a scholar by the name of Dr. Michael Denton wrote a book titled, Evolution, A Theory in Crisis.330 Dr. Denton admitted that evolution just won't work. He used for example the cell process. He explained that the DNA provides the information for the protein synthesis apparatus (see cell diagram). Yet, it is the protein synthesis apparatus that provides the very proteins that are required for the DNA to exist. The protein synthesis apparatus also provides the protein phosphate compounds for the energy system. Yet, the energy system, mitochondria etc, provides the actual energy for the protein synthesis to function. The protein synthesis provides the proteins for the cell membrane. Yet, the cell membrane hold this entire protein synthesis apparatus in tact. In other words: everything is interdependent and codependent on everything else.330/270 There is no scientific possibility that the human cell could have evolved. Evolution is not the answer as to how we all got here. Everything points to outside created design.
Despite how complex the molecules of life are, which have never been duplicated in any capacity in any laboratory, singularly or in combination, evolutionists will insist that it all came about by chance. If there was any proof to this we would find evidence of it in the fossil records. What do we find? We find no evidence of massive accumulation of organic compounds in the fossil record anywhere on earth. Despite these facts evolutionists will tell you they have proof positive of the spontaneous generation of life through the experiments of scientists in the laboratory.
Spontaneous Generation of Life is a scientific chemical impossibility. The American biochemist Stanley Lloyd Miller, of Oakland, California, in 1953 conducted experimental research in an attempt to demonstrate random chance spontaneous generation of life in earthís primordial history. In his experiment he subjected a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, water, methane, and ammonia to an electric discharge for a period of one week.
What was the end result? Millers experiment rather than demonstrating Spontaneous Generation of life, instead demonstrated its impossibility for many reasons. First, the gases Miller used, methane-CH4 and ammonia-NH3, did not exist at the beginning of life as evolutionist define it. Had they existed, the ammonia would have been dissolved in the oceans and the methane if it had been there would be found in the sedimentary clays. It has never been found.
Another condition Miller set up in his experiment was to make sure no Oxygen was present. Why? Because he knew, as all biochemists know, that if just 1% of oxygen had been present in the early atmosphere, that it would have acted as a poison and prevented any basic life compounds from forming in any capacity. This is basic chemistry. What do we find in the earliest fossil layers? We find evidence that there was as much as 10% more oxygen in the atmosphere than there is today.
Another reason we know oxygen was present in the early atmosphere was because Water and Ultraviolet Light were also present from the beginning. When ultraviolet light hits water it creates an oxidized atmosphere. Therefore oxygen was always present in the atmosphere. If the oxygen had not been present in the atmosphere, any amino acids, peptides and other basic life compounds possibly formed would have been immediately destroyed by the ultraviolet light. This is because it is our ozone layer in the atmosphere, produced through ultraviolet light hitting oxygen in the atmosphere, that prevents destructive long-wave length ultraviolet light from coming through. Natural ultraviolet light coming from the sun, without an oxidized atmosphere and no ozone layer, would destroy all and any possible kind of life on earth. It would completely sterilize the earth. This is why ultraviolet Light is used to sterilize food, water and medical instruments. This is the reason for all the worry in the media about the Ozone layer in the atmosphere which protects us from destructive ultraviolet light. Without the Ozone layer, Ultraviolet Light would also have destroyed any ammonia present in the atmosphere.
This was another deception in Millerís experiment: the type of ultraviolet light he used. Miller, as a biochemist, knew that natural ultraviolet light would prevent and destroy any life compounds from forming, so he deliberately left out the destructive long-wavelength ultraviolet light and used only non destructive short-wavelength ultraviolet light in his experiment.
Another deception in Millerís experiment was his artificially protecting the amino acids he produced by siphoning them off. Why? Because Miller knew that the next spark that came which created them in the first place would also destroy them completely. This again does not take place in nature. In other words His experiment did not demonstrate the production of amino acids and peptides through spontaneous generation, but only their partial preservation through tight controlled intelligent design.
While through artificial siphoning Millerís experiment did produce some organic compounds, such as aliphatic acids, hydroxy acids, urea, carbohydrate like compounds, and some amino acids, Millerís Spark Chamber did not produce one of the four primary construction materials needed for life: proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and lipids. As a matter of fact to date none of these have ever been produced in any laboratory under any conditions naturally or artificially. Scientist also have not been able to produce the 50 or so small organic compounds from which these four primary construction materials are made.
Another deception in Millerís experiment was that while it did produce some Amino Acids, the Amino Acids it did form were beta, gamma and delta which means that there were both long and short and right and left handed formed. life processes require exclusively only short & left-handed amino acids. The presence of just one long or right-handed amino acid inserted into a chain of short left-handed amino acids would prevent the coiling and folding necessary for proper protein function. This combination is completely destructive to the formation of any life processes.
What did Millerís experiment produce and demonstrate? First, Millerís experiment rather than producing life, instead only produced poisons that would prevent and destroy any possible chemical evolution of life. Second, Millerís experiment did not demonstrate Spontaneous Generation of Life. Instead it demonstrated the impossibility of Spontaneous Generation of life given the universe we live in, with or without controlled factors. Third, Millerís experiment demonstrated very clearly that molecules could never put themselves together into living cells without the careful selective engineering of a very intelligent Creator. Finally, Millerís experiment and reported results demonstrate that Miller, like most evolutionary scientists, rather than searching for what is true in nature and reporting that truth, instead fabricate lies to deliberately defraud the public into believing that life came about through spontaneous generation. Everything in nature, and especially in early history, does not only not support this hypothesis, but demonstrates clearly that not only could life not have come about this way in nature, but not even when man provides all the needed controlled factors. Spontaneous generation of life is a scientific chemical impossibility.
A dead body has all the necessary molecules needed for the building of life, however, outside of Jesus raising men from the dead and his own body to demonstrate that He is the intelligent factor behind the miracle of the cell and the human body, no one has ever witnessed a dead corpse come to life spontaneously and get up and walk away. What happens when someone dies? The living tissue losses its highly complex biological order and is no longer able to assimilate food the body ingests to keep this highly complex order going. The body disintegrates into disorder: dust.
"Then Yehovah Elohim formed man of dust434 from the-ground, and breathed into his-nostrils the breath of lives; and man became-a-living soul. . . . By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, till you return to the ground, because from it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return." (Genesis 2:7, 3:19).
In my book Spontaneous Generation of Life I go into great detail about the DNA molecule, its make up and how it works. Here, however I will cover it quickly only to explain that all physical life is based on an intelligently designed 30 letter alphabet: First, DNA and RNA with its four letter Base combinations of Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, Guanine and Uracil for RNA in place of Thymine. These form together in three letter words connected to a phosphate string by a sugar molecule bridge of deoxyribose for DNA and ribose for RNA. All the information for the design and maintenance of a living being from a one celled creature to man is stored in a six foot long strand called DNA. The information in the DNA molecule is translated to an RNA strand which produces the more sophisticated alphabet of 20 amino acids. Depending on the combination of the letters of the amino acids determines what kind of structure is formed, whether this is hair, or skin or muscle or bone or brain tissue or nerve cells, etcetera. DNA also has instruction for the formation of three Lipids called Choline, Glycerol or Palmitate. The combination of these molecules are what form the wall structures of the cell and fat cell storage of energy. Cellulose, another one in this category, is what forms the cell walls of plants. From these highly ordered and designed molecular letters, all of life is constructed and maintained.
Where does the information in the DNA molecule come from? Some say it comes from random chance. Information, however, always comes from an intelligent source. What is information? A representation of something. But there is a great gulf between the representation of something and the object itself. Having information is not the same as the object itself. Einstein taught what is now known as Einsteinís Gulf. Einstein stated that there is a difference between our impression of things, that is hard objects, and the world of concepts, ideas or meaning. Between these two realms is a logical gulf that he stated were unbridgeable without outside intelligence to bridge them.
To create an object you first need a concept. A representation can serve for the basis of the creation of an object like the manufacture of a car. However, the car cannot exist without the representation, the plans, the blue prints from which the car is created. First, you must design it; second, you must set up the tools to manufacture the parts; and then, third, create an assembly plant to put it together.
Before an object can exist it must first be preceded by information about how the object is to be made. However, the blueprint cannot create an object any more than the object can create a representation of itself from the blue print. The car cannot recreate itself from a set of blue prints for making a car. Making the car from the blueprints requires a third factor: an intelligent source that can read and decode the blue prints to make the car, but the car cannot make itself. Einstein pointed out that material matter is not able to create a representation of itself, an object is only what it is, an object, nothing more.
This creates problems for Evolutionists when it comes to existing information in the genetic code for example. The genetic code is a blueprint for the creation and maintenance of the human body. According to Evolutionists Genetic code came from unintelligent matter; but we just learned that material matter cannot produce information in the DNA molecule at all.
DNA is a language just like any other language. It has letters, it has an alphabet of four letters. It has words which are all three letters long. It has sentences, it has punctuation, it has a dictionary. It has everything we find in a human language. Therefore it is a true language which explains how physical human life is to be created and maintained; it is equal to any language because it shares the same qualities, grammatical qualities and so forth. As one looks at the world, one finds that information does not exist apart from an intelligent source which created that information. A dictionary is thousands of times less complicated than a DNA molecule, but you would be laughed in the face if you claimed it came about by chance.
How much information is contained in the Human DNA? Some have estimated that it is several sets of encyclopedias of information. Not only is DNA a blue print for life, but is specifically designed for the life and function of each different kind of creature. Take the Ameba for example: not only does DNA specify all its needed proteins but is also equipped to deal with any possible factors within the environment that it lives. This is true for any living form on earth. Wherever they are found, we find that their genetic code has built in factors to deal with and adjust to the environment they find themselves in. This shows omnipotent intelligent design.
Evolutionists in someways admit that information is the result of intelligence. For example: when evolutionary scientists are looking for ETs in the universe, they tune their radios toward space to listen for a message. If they were to find a radio message from outer space that did not originate from earth, How would they know that it came from an intelligent source? Because of the fact that it contains information. Where did the information come from? It had to come from an intelligent source. This then would be their proof that there is intelligent life in the universe. However, they are inconsistent when the evidence points to divine intelligence. They look at the DNA molecule which is a thousand times more complex and full of more complex information than a possible radio message from outer space and assume that it did not come from an intelligent source but only by random chance collision of molecules.
Piano sheet music by itself is of no more value than a rock. The same is true of the piano. However if an intelligent human being who knows how to decipher the sheet music and transcribe it to the keys of the piano sits down and plays the piano, you then have music full of intelligent beautiful information to the hearer. In the same way the DNA molecule, though a highly complex molecule, is of no more value than any other blueprint by itself. This is why if even you were to have DNA molecules floating around in the ocean, this does not constitute intelligent information. This is because there is nothing there to decode the information for an intended intelligent purpose. We call the DNA information only because within the living cell are mechanisms which are able to decipher that code into messenger RNA which is then able to translate it into Protein molecules for a beneficial purpose which means intelligent design. However, there is no useful information in the DNA without the living cell to decode and use it.
Not only did God create the DNA molecule but a system which is able to read this blueprint to create and maintain the human body. Paul was right when he said in Romans 1:20, "His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made4161a, so that they are without excuse."
Okay! So lets suppose that by some miracle highly complex coded DNA for life did form in the oceans by chance. Where did the highly ordered and specifically directed energy come from to utilize the information in DNA to create highly complex life forms? We have already shown that even if DNA molecules with an intelligent purpose came about by chance that the oxygen in the atmosphere and the ultraviolet light from the sun would destroy it before it could be deciphered to produce any kind of life form. Evolutionists, however, teach that it is through the raw energy of the Sun that living organisms evolved and developed. However, if all we had was the raw energy of the sun to depend on for life, we would all be dead in a short time. The energy of the sun we receive in its raw form is unusable and completely destructive to living organisms, yet we need this energy to live. How then do living organisms utilize the energy of the Sun for life? It is done through a process in plants called photosynthesis. The engines in plants, called photosynthesis, take the raw destructive energy of the sun and turns it into energy that the plants and our bodies are then able to use. Evolutionists cannot explain how this highly complex machinery of plant cells came into existence by chance to utilize the raw energy of the sun. It is impossible to explain it this way or demonstrate it scientifically.
From a blade of grass to a giant redwood, 90% of it came from thin air thanks to Photosynthesis. In order for a plant to catch light, many pigment molecules are necessary. These molecules are bound to specific proteins that are arranged in well ordered structures. Each contain as many as 600 chlorophyl molecules that act as antenna for light. These antenna touch the proteins that activate the chemical reactions of photosynthesis called photo-systems.
The photo-systems contain a variety of components including specialized chlorophyl termed the reaction center. Light absorbed by pigments of the antenna are transferred extremely rapidly to the reaction center chlorophyll by a process called resonance transfer. Again, these reactions occur very rapidly, as fast as 1 Pico second which is 1 trillionth of a second or 10-12 seconds. The slowest occurs in micro seconds. 1/1,000,000 of a second is a microsecond.
By this process billions of tons of carbon atoms are taken from CO2 each year and are made into amino acids, sugars and other organic compounds. It is the amino acids, sugars and other organic compounds that we need for DNA and RNA protein replication to build and maintain our physical bodies. Without plant life these buildings blocks would not exist. If this were true, neither would we be able to survive and exist. This is why God on the third day of creation created the plant life first and the light of the sun on the fourth day before He created the ocean life and animal and human life on the fifth and sixth days. Without plant life and the sun for photosynthesis first, no human or animal life created would have been able to nourish itself to sustain its physical life. All animal life on earth is dependent directly or indirectly on plant life to exist. Animals eat the plants and we eat the animals. This is what I mean by indirectly.
If there had been no oxygen In the beginning of life, the ultraviolet light would have destroyed any possible plant life as well. If all plant life on earth was destroyed, in a very short time all animal life would come to extinction. A former biology teacher and close friend of mine, Elroy Robinson, used to say, "Man has not quite reached deity yet, he is still dependent on the lowly green plant." It is not possible for blind chance to put together this incredibly complicated photosynthesis machinery. Evolutionary theory has no means of explaining how this could have possibly come about by chance. Evolutionists are not able to explain how the necessary photosynthesis process came about which was necessary for any kind of life to exist on the earth. Without it, plant life as well as animal life is not able to utilize the energy of the Sun it needs.
The Book of Genesis answers this problem completely. It tells us first that he created the earth on the first day, light on the second day and the dry land and plant life on the third day. He did this even before he created the life in the ocean. Why? Because even ocean life is dependent directly or indirectly on plant life to live and survive. He then created the Sun on the fourth day to sustain the plant life. Finally, now that the plant life was present, on the fifth and six days He created the life in the oceans and the animal and human life on the dry land which would then be able to be sustained by the already existing plant life. Then God said,
"Behold, I have given you every herb-vegatable340 yielding seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit in it yielding seed; it shall be food for you; and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the heavens and to every thing that moves on the earth which has in it a living soul, I have given every green herb for food; and it was so." (Genesis 1:29-30)
God in the beginning, first, before he created animal life, created plant life with the photosynthesis machinery built in ready and able to take the destructive energy of the sun and turn it into energy our bodies could utilize for our own health and well being. Why then do we now eat meat? Because of the past World wide flood. Before the flood there was a water canopy above the surface of the earth which first filtered out the destructive radiation in space and the ultraviolet light of the Sun. Second, it created an even temperature and green house effect around the earth which made plant life abundant. Under these conditions plant life was profuse enough to feed both man and beast including the dinosaurs. Part of what brought about the flood was the collapse of this water canopy. This means that after the flood, since this water canopy no longer existed, that we are now getting more direct sunlight. Plant life is now not as abundant as it was before the flood. Therefore, in order for manís survival, after the flood God commanded Noah and his descendants:
"And Elohim blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth. And the fear of you and the terror of you shall be on every beast of the earth and on every bird of the sky; with everything that creeps on the ground, and all the fish of the sea, into your hand they are given. Every moving thing that is alive shall be food for you; I give all to you, as I gave the green plant." (Genesis 9:1-3)
This also explains why the dinosaurs died out. After the flood there simply was not enough vegetation available to sustain them. Also after the flood, which I explain scientifically in my book on Genesis,290 there was a 10-15% decrease of oxygen in the atmosphere and half the atmospheric pressure. Without this higher oxygen content and higher atmospheric pressure, the dinosaurs were not able to get the oxygen needed into their deep tissue. Evolutionists and Hollywood portray dinosaurs as vicious meat eaters. The Bible, however, teaches clearly that before the flood that they along with man were all vegetarians. Genesis teaches that before Adam and Eve sinned there was no death in the world. Death and destruction are the consequences, the fruit of sin, not the natural order of things as God intended. Now, in order for man to survive, God has given man all animal life for food also.
Scientists have discovered that more than twenty different amino acids are required to produce proteins necessary for the smallest living cell. These proteins composed of amino acids are thin lines only 1 millionth the size of a human hair. The smallest cell has over five hundred of these amino acids. Each amino acid has side groups of atoms. Examining these proteins in living cells, biologists discovered that they are all left-handed. However, amino acids produced in a laboratory are exactly like those found in non-living matter but with 50 percent "left-handed" and 50 percent "right-handed." Living cells, however, can only exist when the atoms are solely "left-handed." The possibility of life occurring by chance with only left-handed amino acids is 1 chance in 10158.288/122
How complicated is the living cell? It is many times more complicated than the most complex Super Cray computer. For one, the cell can reproduce itself and also repair itself. A super Cray computer can do neither. Nothing in the living cell is left to chance, it is all highly regulated and carried out by enzymes.
One example of the complexity of the cell is its ability to handle waste material.402 In order for the cell to function, it first has to have a cell wall to separate what is inside from what is outside. The problem, however, with a wall boundary is how do you transport waste products out and desired products in? The cell accomplishes this by having transport proteins and ion channels that allow only specific molecules to pass through and molecules you want to keep in from passing out.
How does the cell accomplish this? One of the ways is through an internal cell machinery called proteozone. Proteozone is a cylindrically shaped object. Inside it are protoases which are enzymes that degrade and break down proteins into amino acids and peptides. On the top of the Proteozone is a lid that senses what proteins need to be degraded and opens and the proteins go in and are degraded by the proteoases and amino acids and peptides come out the other end. It is both a trash compacter and recycling machine at the same time.
Another complicated job that goes on in the cell is the reproduction of DNA. There are many specific enzyme engines in the cell just for this purpose. One enzyme called helocase separates the two strands of DNA and holds them apart for DNA replication. Two other proteins make up a sliding clamp. The sliding clamp hold the DNA enzyme polymerase on the DNA as it is replicating. Without this clamp the polymerase quickly falls off. The enzyme polymerase carries on another function, it corrects its own mistakes. If it begins by accident to place an incorrect base in sequence on the DNA strand, it will immediately backup, let go of the incorrect base and then place the correct base in its place. So accurate is this proof reading mechanism that there is only one mistake made out of a billion. If all this was by chance, why would there be any enzyme correcting mechanism in place? It is because it is not by chance, but by design by an infinitely intelligent all powerful Creator.
For Further Reading
Another theory put forth by evolutionists of how evolution took place, which also does not explain how life began, is the theory of Mutational Evolution. Mutational Evolution teaches that over time genes in animals were mutation and led to these animals being better able to compete for resources within their environment. Because this was true, they increased in number faster than previous life forms which, as a result, were displaced from those environments. These then became enhanced life forms. Over billions of years, many mutations have taken place which evolutionists believe have led to the many varieties of life forms which we see on earth today.403/114-117
The current leading scholar concerning the genetic human genome is Dr. Francis Collins. Dr. Francis Collins is a Creationist, but he is recognized world wide as the leading geneticist and he is the man in charge of structuring, analyzing and mapping the human genome. Based on this manís research, Dr. Maddox, a genetic specialist, has stated on paper that science has now calculated that a genetic mutation of as little as 1 billionth (.00000001) of a percent of an animals genome is relentlessly fatal!328
Now the genetic difference between man and the chimpanzee is at least 1.6%. That doesnít sound like much, but calculated out, that is a gap of at least 48 million nucleotide differences that must be bridged by random changes. A random change of only 3 nucleotides is fatal to an animal and the death of a crippled mutant animal ends all possibility of further change.
A recent reference book on medical genetics lists over 4,500 diseases caused by genetic mutations. Mutations are permanent random changes in cellular DNA. They change the genetic code for amino acid sequence in proteins. It is understood that the fire that occurred in the Apollo capsule that killed three astronauts was the result of a comma in the wrong place for instruction for creating the space capsule. One amino acid out of sequence as a result of base sequence error in the DNA creates similar results in the biochemical world. These wrong DNA instructions are the result of deletion or insertions of a DNA base, the alphabet of DNA. When this takes place in the female ova or male sperm DNA, the genetic mutation becomes permanent and is what is known as inherited diseases. Mutations also take place in cells in the body and accumulate over time but are not passed on. These are known as "somatic mutations." Cancers and other degenerative diseases are the result of this kind of mutation.
Geneticist Dr. Ling Lester explains that a mutation is basically just a genetic mistake.404 Genes are passed on from generation to generation. To be passed on they are copied. Like in any other copying process, the copying of genes can result in mistakes. These mistakes we call mutations. Dr. Carl Weeland explains that in everyone of us is information, an information code, which determines that we are going to be a human being verses an alligator, that you will have blue eyes verses green eyes. Half of this information comes from our mother and half from our dads. DNA from our parents is two six foot long strands of billions of nucleotides. This DNA is cut up into 23 pieces we call chromosomes. Genes are little sentences along these DNA chromosome strands. The information in these genes, which determines for example whether you will have green or blue eyes, is not passed on like a copier, but is copied one letter at a time. The total information in the DNA in ourselves and all the coded letters would fill volumes and volumes of books. In twenty minutes, all the information, all the letters and sentences which determines what we are going to be, is copied from the 23 chromosomes in our cells for reproduction. Every once in a while a typo occurs in this process which results in a mutation of that gene. Amazingly our bodies have filtering mechanisms which filter out many of these mistakes. Sometimes, however, despite this, a mistake gets by. If this happens in the sperm of the male or egg of the female it is passed on permanently from generation to generation and these mutations build up from generation to generation. Like in a computer program, if you have a defect in the program and copy it, you copy the defect with it.404
If this is true, why donít we see this accumulation of defects in ourselves more greatly than we do? The reason is because it will only show up if both parents have this same defect in the same gene. If one does not, the good gene is produced rather than the defective one, another miracle which cannot be explained by blind chance.
Biologist Dr. Gary Parker explains that evolutionists want us to believe that mutations are the writers who are writing new information into the script that give us new traits and new abilities. The facts of science shows us just the opposite.404 Darwin and his associates believed that if an animal through successive generations did not use a particular genetic expression, that this would result in a change in the genetic script and would be passed on to the offspring. We know now though through science that this is not the case, that whether genes are used or not, they are still passed on from one generation to another.
Unfortunately, what evolutionists donít tell you is that all mutations are harmful, not beneficial. Mutations cause problems rather than the means for evolutionary change. We here a lot about cholesterol today. Two much in our blood streams results in the clotting of our arteries. Recently it has been discovered that this is caused by a biochemical defect called familial hypercholesteroleniia (FH). This disorder is the result of a mutation of a gene which creates a protein imbedded in the cell membrane which allows fats and cholesterol created in the liver to pass through into the cell. In some cases little or none of this protein is produced or if it is produced is not imbedded into the cell membrane. In other cases the protein is imbedded in the cell membrane but does not link with the fat or cholesterol packages. In another case it is not allowed to stay imbedded in the cell membrane. In another case the protein links with the fat and cholesterol packages but does not allow them to pass through into the cell.
Cholesterol in our systems is not bad because it is used in the construction of cell membranes. When the cell needs cholesterol it sends a message to the liver and the liver produces cholesterol in the blood stream for the cell to use. When the cell is not able to pass the cholesterol through its cell membrane, it keeps sending more messages to the liver to produce more cholesterol because it doesnít know the problem is not being able to pass the available cholesterol through. This results in high levels of cholesterol in the blood stream. The end result is rapid atherosclerosis and heart disease. If a child has inherited this problem it results in fatal heart disease in their youth.
Another example of a mutated disease is cystic fibrosis (CF). This is another disease which cripples children and leads to early death. It results in damage to the lungs, digestive organs and in males the spermatic duct. It is the result of the misspelling of one key gene which regulates chloride ion transport across the cell membrane. The production of this protein involves 250,000 base pairs in the mRNA and 1,480 amino acids in the production of the protein. Research has shown this defect is the result of a deletion of three nucleotides (3 bases) which results in the loss of a phenylalanine, an amino acide, residue on the peptide chains of the protein. This error in instruction results in lung infections, pancreatis, male infertility, but never anything beneficial. These facts indicate that every atom in our body is placed by the specific design of an intelligent Creator, not by accident.
What causes cancer? This involves genes concerned with cell replication. There are genes whose function are to suppress cell replication and genes which are concerned with encouraging cell replication. Both are necessary for proper cell function and growth. When a mutation, however, damages the gene for suppression of cell replication, you get uncontrolled replication of cells which results in a tumor. This is what we call cancer. This kind of damaging mutation takes place over time and is mainly an old age disease. However, if this mutation is inherited it results in cancer in children.
Evolutionists will cite sickle cell anemia as an example of a beneficial mutation because if a person receives the mutated gene for this from just one parent he will be resistant to malaria. What they do not tell you is that if the person receives this gene from both parents, which results in their having sickle cell anemia, it will result in an early death in life. Regardless of the benefit to resistance to malaria, how is dying early in life beneficial?
In light of these scientific facts, why do evolutionists continue to insist that evolution came about through mutations? Because there is no new source of genetic material to bring about evolution except through something rewriting the script which already exists. Because they come from the assumption that evolution is true, it had to come about through genetic mutations. However, ask any evolutionary scientists to give you examples of good beneficial mutations and all you will receive from them is silence. However there are thousands and thousands of documented examples of mutations that are non-beneficial and destructive. When God created us in the beginning the genetic code needed no improvement.
Another fact that evolutionists do not explain about the concept of evolution is that in order to produce a new highly complex organ requires not one genetic mutation, but thousands, but not just thousands of mutations, but mutations that can work in concert together and bring about a beneficial result. Science has never witnessed to any degree an organism developing a new organ through mutations. All mutations are destructive, not constructive. Mutations are mutations, not evolution in any stretch of the imagination. Mutations rather than being an increase of information are a decrease of information, a corrupting of the information that already exists. Information is lost, not built up. No scientist has ever witnessed a mutation increasing information, only corrupting the information that already exists.
Since Evolutionists put forth the hypothesis of evolution through mutations, many experiments have been conducted on life forms to produce genetic mutations. The most popular life form for these experiments have been fruit flies. What has been the end result? While they have, through exposure to radiation, been able to produce mutated fruit flies, what they have not been able to do is reproduce fruit flies from mutated fruit flies. This is because without exception all mutated fruit flies are sterile and die without ever being able to pass on their mutated genes. The end result of all these experiments has been complete and total failure to give any evidence that life on earth evolved through genetic mutations.405/11-12, 408/273-274 What they discovered was that no mutation produced knew organs. They discovered that species can vary within certain limits, but cannot go beyond the boundary of their species.406/124-125
Many mutational experiments were also done on E. coli bacteria. The results were the same: While they came up with different strains of E. coli bacteria, it remained E. coli bacteria.407/88 C. H. Waddington, a biologist at the University of Edinburgh, had put it this way:
"[A] new gene mutation can cause an alteration only to a characteristic which the organism had had in previous generations. It could not produce a lobster's claw on a cat; it could only alter the cat in some way, still leaving it essentially a cat."20/197
What does this prove? It proves that diversification of life did not come about through mutational evolution. It also proves that diversification of life within a species does not prove evolution; it proves that diversification within a species is possible but not outside the species and that this diversification did not come about through mutations, but was always present within the DNA of the species to start with. The issue is not whether variations can be achieved within a species but whether a species can mutate into a new and completely different species. This has never been proved in any experiment on any level.
According to scientists, the minimum number of mutations necessary to bring about the simplest new structure in an organism is five.405/67-68 However, these five mutations must be of the right kind and must be functionally related. This means that not just any five mutations will do the job. The odds of five mutations taking place functionally related at the same time in a single organism by chance are astronomically impossible. Scientists believe only one mutation takes place in every 100,000 gene replications.408/272 The probability of five non-harmful mutations taking place functionally related in a single cell is 1 in 1040.409/5 If one hundred trillion, 1014, bacteria were produced every second for five billion years, 1017 seconds, the resulting population would be only 1/1,000,000,000 of what was needed.
This is just the first step. Next, these five mutations must somehow be brought together to be integrated and function in concert with each other. Next, this integrated function must provide some advantage or be scattered within the population due to interbreeding.406/1/87 With these odds, it is not possible to explain through these means how complex life forms came into being given any amount of time. For example: the wing of the fruit fly alone involves 30-40 genes. This means that given the age of the universe, as evolutionists define it, through random selection you might produce one wing of a fruit fly. That is trillions of years away from a fully formed fruit fly let alone an animal or human. Evolution is not the answer about how we got here. As a result Gertrude Himmelfarb in her book Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution (1959) concluded:
"It is now discovered that favorable mutations are not only small but exceedingly rare, and the fortuitous combination of favorable mutations such as would be required for the production of even a fruit fly, let alone a man, is so much rarer still that the odds against it would be expressed by a number containing as many noughts as there are letters in the average novel, Ďa number greater than that of all the electrons and protons in the visible universeíóan improbability as great as that a monkey provided with a typewriter would by chance peck out the works of Shakespeare."20/196
What do known mutations indicate? First, that the human mutation problem is bad and getting worse. Second, that with this increasing bad results of mutation there is not one good off setting beneficial mutation known in existence. Mutations maim, cripple and sometimes kill. Gene therapy masks the effects of these genetic defects, but they do not reverse the underlying degenerative process. This slow ongoing mutation rate in the human gnome will eventually turn the human genetic code into meaningless gobbledygook.
What do mutations indicate about the Book of Genesis? Mutations indicate that what Moses recorded in Genesis is true: that in the beginning when God created Adam and Eve using DNA as the basis for maintaining the bodies that He gave them, that the information in DNA was perfect and complete to start with. It also proves that when Adam and Eve sinned and God cursed the ground and man, that man came into bondage to corruption evidenced by documented destructive mutations. It is evidence of that curse because no new beneficial information is being added to our DNA, only destructive results through mutations. They indicate that manís physical body as well as his soul are corrupted and in the process of corruption needing Godís redemption. This is exactly Godís promise to those who turn to His Sonís death and shed blood on the cross for redemption: in the resurrection of the righteous a new uncorrupted body and a redemption of the ecosystem as well for the new uncorrupted body to thrive in without corruption.
"Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood is not able to inherit the kingdom of God; nor does corruption inherit the incorruptible. Behold, I tell you a mystery; we shall not all sleep [die], but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruptibility, and this mortal must put on immortality. But when this corruptible will have put on the incorruptible, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, ĎDeath is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is your victory? O death, where is your sting?í The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." (1 Corinthians 15:50-57)
"For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory that is to be revealed to us. For the anxious longing of the creation waits eagerly for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not of its own will, but because of Him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself also will be set free from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groans and suffers the pains of childbirth together until now. And not only this, but also we ourselves, having the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our body." (Romans 8:18-23)
Genesis teaches that manís body was made from the dust of the ground. For years scientists laughed at this passage because of the complex elements and molecules that man is made of. However, after a century of research scientists have since discovered that clay and earth contain every single element found in the human body (Readerís Digest, November 1982).
Moses wrote in Leviticus 17:11, "For the life of the flesh is in the blood." Manís life, the Bible tells us, is in the blood. There are over seventy-five thousand miles of blood vessels in our body. This is enough to go around the earth three times. Due to modern medical science we now know that this blood that these vessels carry feed an incredible sixty trillion cells within the human body. Chemical sensors detect nutrients in the blood that are needed and make it possible for the cell to connect with these nutrients.288/154-155 Moses had no microscopes and there were no existing cultures in his day which could have given him this information. There is no other way he could have known this except Yehovah God had revealed it to him.
Computers in the fifties were made up of literally thousands of vacuum tubes. In the 1960s transistors came into being which are about the size of an eraser which replaced vacuum tubes. Now transistors can be reduced in size so small that we can literally place 5 million of them within a square inch.
Ten years ago we were talking about storing 100KB of information on a computer. Now we talk about storing more than 100 GB of information on one hard drive alone (2000).
How fast are computers today? A computer at NASA Gadard has 512 processors at the high end of todays PCs. The speed of light is approximately a foot per nano-second. In the time light can travel one foot, this computer can perform 75 additions or multiplications of fourteen digit numbers. When we compare this to the brain, this computer pales in significance. When we talk about the human brain we are not talking about thousands or billions of connects, but trillions with many nodes that can connect back and forth in the brain. Each node has multiple connections, up to 25,000.
When we talk about being able to do multiple things on a computer simultaneously, actually we are only doing one thing at a time at a very high speed. However, even this high speed does not compare to the speed at which the brain can interpret information and how many things the brain has to handle every day.
Our three pound brain consisting of 100 billion nerve cells is an intricately woven tissue, the most complicated aggregation of matter in the universe. The seat of our consciousness in which thinking and feeling take place is called the mind which is not a computer, but has a computer we call the brain.
One cell has billions of components, not millions such as a central processor. When we look at the computer like the harddrive, we talk about a standard hardrive or harddisk to store information on with an average capacity of 2GB. The single cell holds more information than this in its DNA.
The complexity of the human brain is currently beyond manís understanding. One such process of the brain is that of sight. The retna of our eye is actually part of the human brain. Two optic nervers responsible for carrying signals from the retna to the brain consists of 1 million fibers. To simulate 10ms of the complete processing of even a single nerve cell from the retna would require the solution of 500 simultaneous non-linear differential equations 100 times and would take several minutes of processing time on a Cray Super-Computer. There are about 10 million light sensitive cells in the retina that are packed in the density of about 200,000 cells per square millimeter which is about the thickness of a dime.
While the retina may record what hits the eye, the brain must understand and process the information from the retina. The brain must recognize the image and then integrate it into something useful.
Considering the idea that the eye evolved according to evolutionists: the dilemma is how did a group of highly complex molecules get together and decide they wanted to create an eye? Without a group of committee meetings this doesnít make much sense. When they started to make an eye, when did they know when to stop? A quarter of an eye is a useless organ just dragging around that cannot see anything. Even when the eye became fully formed, it would still be useless without the brain. It required an intelligent designer to say, "We now have an eye and a brain, now we can see."
Scientists estimate that we have over 30 trillion cells in our body, and of these cells about 12 billion are in our brain and nervous system. If we take this brain with its 12 billion neurons, each of these nerve cells on the average takes about 25,000 connections with other nerve cells and even itself. Given this it has been estimated that we have about 120 trillion inter-connections which hardwire all the cells of our brain so that it can do its work. It has also been estimated that each of these neurons is made up of about 10 billion molecules or macro molecules and that in the course of our life-time it can gather up to about 1015 bits of information and actually a lot more.
Our brains also process an incredible amount of information much faster than our most sophisticated computers. The programming of our brains is light years beyond our most sophisticated computer programs. A comparison of the human body to a computer is no comparison at all. We can put more than 37 million transistors on an average computer processing chip of what is considered the Brain of a computer today. This, however, does not even come close the complexity of just one human cell of the body which still requires the brain to function. The computer not only has to have the hardware but also a complicated processing system to make it all work. In other words, it needed intelligent design and organization in order to make it work properly. Concerning the human body, you can have all the muscles, bone and matter, but without the human intelligence behind it, it does not work.
The 3 pound hunk of grey matter in our heads as far as we know is capable of carrying on all of the thoughts, ideas and senses and movements we make throughout our life. The human brain accomplishes all this in one day on the energy contained in one peanut. So we also have an extremely efficient computer in our heads.
Just as a computer needs software, so does the human body. The genetic codes is so well packed, so well written it can carry out and maintain the human body throughout our lives. the DNA programing accomplishes this with only about 3 billion base codings. No one would ever question that a table top computer did not come about by chance or that the Windowís 98 program came about by chance; yet the complexity of the DNA programming is millions of times greater than our most sophisticated computer programs in existence which accomplishes zilch compared to what the DNA programming accomplishes. If you want to test this, wipe all the programing of your harddrive off and ask yourself how long it will take for Windows 2000 to to evolve by chance on your harddrive. You know it would never happen, yet we want to believe that the million times more complex programing of DNA came about by chance. this is ludicrous to the highest degree. This is what Paul was talking about when he said in Romans 1:20, "For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that. . ." we are without excuse to not acknowledge Godís existence and His having created us by intelligent design, not by random chance collision of molecules.
What is involved in the creation of a computer? First, the designers sit down and spend on the average two years just on paper very carefully designing the computer, what it will look like, what programing will be required, how many lines of code and memory will be required, etcetera. Next, this is then written down in modules. The next year is spent in building the computer and another year is spent getting all the bugs out. Yet, despite this reality about the creation of a computer which is childs play compared to the complexity of the human body, we want to say the highly complex human body all came about by random chance. This is no more true than to say just by taking words and throwing them on a table and mixing them up we would come up with a highly sophisticated computer and programs to run the computer. Man did not happen by chance, he was created by the most intelligent designer in existence: Yehovah GodóJesus Christ. The Psalmist David wrote:
"For You did form my inward parts; You did weave me in my mother's womb. I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and my soul knows it very well." (Psalm 139:13-14)
According to Evolutionists man has been on the earth for over one million years and according to the Bible man has only been on the earth for six thousand years. Based on our current population, which is correct? Scripture teaches that eight people in Noahís ark survived the flood 4,300 years ago. Through known history we know that the average family produces 2.5 children per household which is lower than the average family for this century. The average life span through history has been 43 years per generation. This means that in 4,300 years there would have been 100 generations lasting 43 years each. Scientific calculations show, taking consideration of disease, natural disasters and wars,that the population of the world today would be around 5 billion worldwide.325/414-426
What would the population be if man had been on the earth 1 million years? This would mean that there would have been 23,256 generations in this time. This calculates to 102091 people. How large of a number is this? There are only 1080 electrons in the known Universe. It is slightly, ya!, larger than this. If man had been living on the earth for over a million years, the population of the earth would be so large that we would literally be standing on a huge mountain of bones from the trillions and trillions and trillions of people who ever lived. Unfortunately the science of archaeology has not found a fraction of the trillions of skeletons that should be here if the theory of evolution were true. The story of the universal flood 4,300 years ago is in total agreement with the population of the world today.
In Exodus 15:26 God promised the Israelites the following:
"And He said, ĎIf you will give earnest heed to the voice of Yehovah your-Elohim, and do what is right in His sight, and give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases on you which I have put on the Egyptians; for I, Yehovah, am your healer.í"
God promised the Israelites if they obeyed His commands to them they would not have any of the diseases they saw and certainly experienced In the land of Egypt.
Moses was a prince in Egypt, therefore he was educated in the universities and ways of Egypt. What were the ways of the Egyptians for dealing with sicknesses and diseases? There medical prescriptions included lizards, blood, swineís teeth, putrid meat, stinking fat, moisture from pigsí ears, milk, goose grease, assís hoofs, animal fats from various sources, excreta from animals, including human beings, donkeys, antelopes, dogs, cats, and even flies. The list of things I have just mentioned come from the Papyrus Ebers manuscript that was translated in S.E. Massengillís A Sketch of Medicine and Pharmacy.288/141
Some examples of Egyptian cures: for constipation was prescribed zizyphus bread, gurma, catís dung, sweet beer and wine. To treat a tumor they mixed fly dung with sycamore juice and applied it to the tumor. For a baby who cried too much they prescribed spn-seeds, fly dung from the wall which they made into a paste. Hot water was then poured and strained through this paste and given to the baby for four days. The crying ceased after the baby died from the deadly poison. Because of their lack of knowledge of germs and infection, their prescriptions brought death rather than a cure. Study of other cultures showed similar prescribed cures.
When the Israelites left Egypt, were these Egyptian cures what Moses prescribed to the Israelites for their problems and infections? No. What did Moses prescribe? Moses prescribed practices, over 613, which he recorded in the first five books of the Bible known as the Pentateuch or Torah,292 which he claimed Yehovah-God gave him and that if followed would prevent them from having any of the diseases the Egyptians had suffered. These instructions of the Bible contain detailed medical laws that concerned the inspection of meat and exacting sanitation regulations regarding the handling of dead bodies and exposure to other natural petri dish circumstances for disease.
One must remember that man did not have the technology or instruments to know anything about microscopic germs or how these germs were passed from one person to another until the end of the last century. Doctors had believed that people contracted diseases by chance. If a person became sick, he was treated in the home without realizing that by doing so they were spreading the disease to everyone else in the home. This was because whoever was caring for the sick knew nothing about the importance of the need of sanitation before treating the next patient or touching a person in proximity of the patient. Dr I. Mcmillen in his book, None Of These Diseases, documents that in the mid 1800's that the death of women after giving birth in hospitals was tremendously high. Again this was because after delivering a baby, without properly cleaning them selves, the doctors and nurses would go to the next patient and handle them with the germs and diseases they had just picked up from the previous patient.
Before the exodus both the Egyptians and the Israelites, without any knowledge of the importance of cleaning their dishes and utensils would daily eat out of the same dishes. However, after the exodus, Moses through Godís instruction told the Israelites that they were not to prepare food in pottery that was cracked where germs could cultivate but that they were to throw it away. He also instructed them that after eating out of bronze vessels that the vessel was to be scoured and rinsed in water before being reused (Leviticus 6:28). Concerning animal carcasses, in Leviticus Chapter 11 Moses makes plain that if the dead carcass of an animal touches anything that they eat out of, that it is to be destroyed and no longer used for cooking or eating. In Leviticus 7:24 Moses forbids the people to eat of any animal that has died naturally or by other wild animals.
If someone came into contact with a dead person, they would be declared unclean and would have to live outside the camp for seven days. On the third and seventh day they were to wash themselves with running water (Numbers 19:5-17). This water contained the ashes of the Red Heifer that had been burned with cedar, hyssop and scarlet thread. As a result these ashes first of all contained cedar oil that came from a kind of juniper tree that grew in both Israel and in the Sinai. This cedar oil irritated the skin which encouraged the person to rub the solution into their hands. The hyssop tree, associated with mint and possibly marjoram, would produce hyssop oil. Hyssop oil is actually a very effective antiseptic and antibacterial agent. Hyssop oil contains 50% carvacrol which is an antifungal and antibacterial agent that is used in medicine today.288/153 The person who touched the dead body was to be cleansed with this purification water which cleansed and disinfected him.
This applied especially in times of war. If anyone killed someone or touched a dead person, not only were they to do the above, but they were also to do it to their captives and any leather, anything woven of goatsí hair and anything made of wood (Numbers 31:19-20). Whatever could be cleansed through direct application to fire was to be done so and then cleansed with the water of purification to insure that it was disinfected. If it could not be put through fire, such as clothes, it was to be washed and run through water on the third and seven day. Then and only then could they reenter the camp (Numbers 31:23-24).
The Israelites were also commanded to clean themselves in running water anytime they came into contact with fluids of the body such as a discharge. Not only where they to bathe themselves but they were to wash their clothes as well (Leviticus 15:13).
Disease such as Leprosy, for which they had no known cure except Godís supernatural healing if He so chose, were permanently quarantined from the rest of the camp so as not to spread the disease to others (Leviticus 13:43-46). It was not until this century that man realized the importance of quarantining patients with highly contagious diseases from the rest of society.
If a leper became healed, in order to be reinstated in society, first the priest had to inspect him to see that yes indeed he was healed. Then Leviticus 14:8-9 records,
"The one to be cleansed shall then wash his clothes and shave off all his hair, and bathe in water and be clean. Now afterward, he may enter the camp, but he shall stay outside his tent for seven days. And it will be on the seventh day that he shall shave off all his hair: he shall shave his head and his beard and his eyebrows, even all his hair. He shall then wash his clothes and bathe his body in water and be clean."
Those who treated the segregated patient were also given instruction to change their clothes and wash in running water and then expose both themselves and their clothes to to the sunís light.
It is only because of our modern technology which has made us aware of germs and infection that we have come to understand how right Mosesí instruction to the Israelites was to avoid infectious disease. How could Moses, who had only been trained in the way of the Egyptians, come to have this knowledge and understanding? Only through a divine revelation of God. The Bible truly is the Word of God.
In the Middle Ages, man throughout Europe was plagued with many diseases. The worst of these was the Bubonic plague known as the Black Death. This disease destroyed entire towns and villages. The medical advice given to try and stop the plague was to stop eating pepper or garlic.288/148 Others thought the position of the planets and stars was causing the disease. All the doctors could do was comfort their patients while they themselves contracted the disease.
How was this dreaded disease finally brought to a halt? Some Church leaders in Vienna got together and begin to search the Scriptures for an answer.288/148-149 They decided to follow Mosesí strict laws of sanitation, handling of the dead, cleaning with running water and quarantine practices. Those who cared for the sick outside the city were not allowed back into the city. They were to stay with the sick until it was over or they themselves were overcome by the plague. Those who died in the city were instantly removed and buried outside the city limits. Only as a result of their following Godís commands through Moses recorded 3,400 years earlier were they able to bring the plague to a stop.
Concerning human waste God commanded the Israelites to do the following:
"You shall also have a place outside the camp and go out there, and you shall have a spade among your tools, and it shall be when you sit down outside, you shall dig with it and shall turn to cover up your excrement." (Deuteronomy 23:12-13)
This is basic to us but that is because we take this for granted, but our understanding of this kind of sanitation is because of our knowledge of disease and germs which knowledge no civilization had until the past century. Moses did not know about germs or disease, but God did. The fact that Moses would give this kind of instruction to the Israelites was just as Moses said: a divine revelation from God.
Evolutionists claim that our known solar system is 4.5 billion years old. Their explanation for the complexity of life is time plus chance, millions of accidents of nature taking place over billions of years. If one considers the science of Mathematical Probability, 4.5 billion years is not enough time even to produce the simplest one celled living organism. Mathematical Probability deals with the possibility of order coming out of random processes.
To understand the kind of numbers this deals with, first understand that in the known universe there are only 1080 electrons. That is 1 with 80 zeros after it. The probability of getting hit by lighting, for example, is 1 in 600,000. That is 1 chance in 6 x 105. The possibility of winning a typical lottery is 1 chance in 5.2 x 106. As you add more and more factors the numbers get higher and higher. For example, the chance development of a mechanism consisting of 200 integrated parts is 1 chance in 10375.
NASA tells us that the simplest protein molecule that we can call living is composed of 400 linked amino acids. Each amino acid is made up of a specific arrangement of four or five chemical elements, and each chemical element is itself a unique combination of protons, neutrons, and electrons.196/277 The chance formation of the simplest replicating protein is 1 in 10450 The probability of forming the proteins and DNA for the smallest self-replicating living organism such as a single cell is 1 in 10167,626.
What does all this mean? Evolutionists say the universe is 30 billion years old. This comes to 1018 seconds. This figure is 25 times smaller than the time needed for the chance development of the simplest protein if each step of its evolution were to take place once every second. It is 9,312 times too short for the chance formation of DNA. There is not enough energy in the universe for either of these two chance processes to take place in time before the known energy runs out. Chance evolution is an absolute impossibility. Scott M. Huse writes,
"The world in which we live is truly an amazing and fascinating place. It houses a cheetah cat which can run 70 mph; insects which sleep for 17 years; Weddell seals that can remain under water for 45 minutes, diving to depths of 1500 feet; eight armed, ink-shooting octopuses that can eat their own arms and grow new ones; archerfish that can shoot water 15 feet into the air and hit a bug; peregrine hawks that can swoop down on their pray at 150 mph; and so on."191/70
The Mathematical Probability of these few examples happening by chance are many times greater than the formation of the simplest DNA molecule. To ignore the impossibility of these things happening by chance is to deliberately defraud oneself and oneís fellow man. It is to be absolutely and completely unscientific as well.
The human eye is so complex and sophisticated that scientists are still unable to fully understand how it functions. Charles Darwin himself acknowledged the impossibility of evolution to bring about the eye through natural selection. He wrote,
"To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and Chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree... The belief that an organ as perfect as the eye could have formed by natural selection is more than enough to stagger anyone."199/468
Wysong puts the probability for the chance formation of an eye at 1 in 10266.146/455 If each step of the evolutionary natural selection process of the eye took place once every second it would take 270 billions years to develop. This is fourteen times longer then what the evolutionist claim to be the age of the universe. This Figure for the chance probability of two eyes doubles. Sturmius wrote, "Examination of the eye is a cure for atheism."198/163
Evolutionists developed a geological chart which they use to illustrate the evolution of life up to man dating back 600 million years. This geologic column based on fossils was founded and built on the assumption that organic evolution was a fact, not through scientific investigation and observation of the fossil layers themselves. Nowhere in the world does the geologic column actually occur. It exists only in the minds of evolutionary geologists. It is not an actual fact in tangible scientific observable reality anywhere. The only evidence for evolutionary fact is the assumption of evolution. It is all based on an assumption and the proofs given totally contradict the observable tangible evidence of the fossil layers themselves.178/267 Professor N. Heribert Nilsson of London University, Sweden states:
"It is not even possible to make a caricature of evolution out of paleobiological facts. The fossil material is now so complete that the lack of transitional series cannot be explained by the scarcity of the material. The deficiencies are real, they will never be filled."190/220
What is created and filled in exists only in the imaginations of the Scientists. A well known Evolutionary Paleontologist, Dr. Colin Patterson of London who has thoroughly studied the fossil record, knowing that no transitions between the species exist in the fossil record chose to be honest enough in his textbook to not create diagrams illustrating transitions that did not exist. When asked why he did not his reply was the following:
"I fully agree with your comments on the lack of direct illustration of evolutionary transitions in my book. If I knew of any, fossil or living, I would certainly have included them. You suggest that an artist should be used to visualize such transformations, but where would he get the information from? I could not, honestly, provide it, and if I were to leave it to artistic licence, would that not mislead the reader?"149/89
Dr. Carl E. Baugh and Dr. Clifford A. Wilson document through their own archaeological work in their book, Dinosaur, Scientific Evidence that Man and Dinosaur Walked Together, that human and dinosaur prints exist together in the fossil record.374 Also found are cave paintings of both man and dinosaurs together. This contradicts the teaching of evolutionist which teach that the dinosaurs died out millions of years before man came on the seen.
A discovery of great significance was made by William Meister on June 1, 1968 in Utah. He found the fossils of several trilobites in the fossilized, sandaled footprint of a man. According to the evolutionary geological table, trilobites became extinct 230 million years before manís existence. Evidently not.156/26 The fossil record does not support the teachings or assumptions of Evolution.
Fossilization presents another serious problem among Evolutionists. No where in the world today can the process of gradual fossilization be observed. What happens when a fish dies and falls to the ocean floor? It does not turn into a fossil. It is eaten by scavengers. In contrast, in the past a huge amount of fossilization took place all at once everywhere. This is evidence of some kind of major world wide cataclysmic, hydraulic event. Fossil layers are evidence of sudden mass extermination of life.191/46 Fossils of animals found have their heads arched back with their mouths open in a state of terror. There are caves, fissures and mass burial sites throughout the world that are packed with fossils. The animals found come from widely separated and differing climatic zones, thrown together in disorderly masses. Everything points to instant catastrophe, not gradual fossilization.192/159